Some secrets are such that you just can’t stop thinking about them over and over again. According to a recent study, this habit can be harmful to our well-being.
"Almost everyone keeps secrets, and they may be harmful to our well-being, our relationships and our health. How secrecy brings such harm, however, is highly understudied," said Michael L. Slepian, lead author of the study. The study was published in the journal Emotion.
"Hiding a secret is largely driven by how often a person is having a conversation related to the secret with the person whom he or she is hiding it from, not how he or she feels about the secret," Slepian said.
When a person felt shame about the secret, he or she felt small, worthless or powerless, while guilt made an individual feel remorse, tension or regret. Secrets about one's mental health, a prior traumatic experience or unhappiness with one's physical appearance tended to evoke more shame, according to Slepian, whereas hurting another person, lying to someone or violating someone's trust induced more guilt.
As part of the study, the team of researchers examined shame and guilt, the two most highly studied self-conscious emotions.
“Unlike basic emotions, such as anger and fear, which refer to something outside of oneself, shame and guilt centre on the self,” said Slepian.
People who reported feeling shame thought about their secrets significantly more often than people who reported feeling guilty or those who felt no shame or guilt about their secret. The authors also found that neither guilt nor shame predicted the concealment of secrets.
The study also suggests that people who feel shame about a secret, as opposed to guilt, are more likely to be consumed by thoughts of what they are hiding. Feeling regret did not cause a person to think repeatedly about a secret in the same way that feeling powerless did, Slepian concluded. People should not be so hard on themselves when thinking about their secrets, the researchers said.
"If the secret feels burdensome, try not to take it personally but recognize instead that it reflects on your behaviour, and you can change that. Guilt focuses people on what to do next and so shifting away from shame toward guilt should help people better cope with their secrets and move forward," Slepian said.